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EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ACTION: PROJECT IMPACT ON FOCUS GROUPS RESEARCH GENERAL REPORT

education for sustainable development in action: PROJECT IMPACT ON FOCUS GROUPS

RESEARCH GENERAL REPORT

Kyiv, Ukraine, 2014-2015

CONTENTS

1.         Introduction

1.1.       Summary of conclusions and recommendations

1.2.       Summary of the current project cycle

1.3.       Aims and objectives of the study

1.4.       Representatives of the target groups involved in the study

  1. Overall research methodology
  2. Student Performance Analysis

3.1         Methodology for determining the overall impact of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in daily behavior and awareness of 9th-grade students.

3.2         The results of the impact analysis of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in attitudes and awareness of 9-10-11th-grade students at schools where ESD is a whole-school approach

3.3         The results of the impact analysis of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in attitudes and awareness of 9-10-11th-grade students at schools where ESD is taught as a separate subject (course)

3.4         9th-grade students’ attitude to the proposed pedagogical model, the formation of their social competence

3.5         Determination of the overall impact of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in daily behavior and awareness of 5th-grade students

3.6         5th-grade students’ attitude to the proposed pedagogical model, the formation of their social competence

  1. Performance Analysis of Teachers and Parents Involved in the Project

 4.1 The results of the impact analysis of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in daily behavior and professional activity of ESD teachers

 4.2. The results of the impact analysis of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in daily behavior and awareness of students, according to their parents, in schools where ESD is taught as a separate subject

5.         THE PEDAGOGY

5.1     Whole-School Approach

5.2     Educational aspects

5.3     Ecological aspects

5.4     Social and governance aspects

6.         GENERAL COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS

7.         RECOMMENDATIONS

Appendices

  1. 1.        9th and 10th (11th) grade students questionnaire
  2. 2.        5th-grade students questionnaire
  3. 3.        Parents questionnaire
  4. 4.        Teachers questionnaire
  5. 5.        School manager questionnaire introducing ESD as a whole-school approach
  6. 6.        ESD coordinator questionnaire in the Project member regions
  7. 7.        Best practice of education for sustainable development in Ukraine
  8. 8.        Mathematical Statistics Methods
  9. 9.        The sequence of results calculations for a separate region illustrated by the Kharkiv region results

1. INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Summary of conclusions and recommendations

 

1.2       Summary of the current project cycle

The project ‘Education for Sustainable Development in Action’ (ESDA, 2013-2015) is aimed to increase the number of schools engaged in this successful educational initiative to ensure sustainable lifestyle choices in students and the corresponding changes in their behaviour. The project builds on the outcomes of the previous partnership programme jointly implemented by the TDP and GAP in 2010-2012 that achieved impressive results. The main focus in this project is to develop and improve the existing school curriculum for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and disseminate it to 6 more oblasts of Ukraine, as well as support its delivery in the 8 oblasts where it was introduced earlier.

Based on the experience of this project it may be concluded that introducing the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ (LSD), as a discrete school subject, and a series of extra-curricular activities has been an effective strategy to initiate ESD in Ukraine. This is explained by the fact that , firstly, this strategy allowed for selecting and training teachers who then could immediately start teaching ESD themes through a cross-curricular approach (indeed, such an approach is implicit in the very content of ESD). Secondly, within this subject an original and innovative pedagogical model was designed and implemented – a model that is consistent with the purpose and specific features of ESD as an educational area. Thirdly, it opened the opportunities to go beyond school and start working with the parents, families and friends of students to engage them to sustainable practical actions.

 

During the previous 6-7 years, the TDP experts have been working to design lessons on ESD and have them included into the existing school curriculum. All sets of the teaching and learning materials were approved by the Ministry of Education. The ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’, as a separate subject, comprise a range of optional courses (for grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9), a series of learning sessions for kindergartens and extra-curricular activities for lower secondary school (grades 5-7), all complete with specifically designed syllabi, teacher’s guides and student books.

Since March 2013, during the second cycle of the ESDA project the curriculum on ‘Education for Sustainable Development’ has spread to 14 oblasts of Ukraine: Vinnitsa, Dnipropetrovsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Lugansk, Rivne, Khmelnytskyi, Donetsk, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Mykolaiv, Ternopil, Kharkiv, Cherkassy and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

 

In 2013-2014 the planned activities were completed with satisfactory results and minimum deviations, notwithstanding the fact that the project had started later than expected.

 

Also, the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ curriculum was further enlarged with the syllabi for primary school (grades 1 and 2) and for kindergartens specifically designed for these age groups; the relevant teacher’s guides and student books were developed, printed and distributed to educational establishments.

On the whole, within the project in 2013 ESD was offered at 914 schools in 14 regions of Ukraine; whereas in 2014 it was delivered at 857 schools and 15 preschools. In 2013 a total of 58,151 students studied the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ courses and in 2014 – 48,900.

 

According to the Teacher Training Plan, 92 trainings were held and 2,324 teachers were prepared to teach SD themes.

 

To raise awareness among educators, 16 round table events were organized for school administrators in the 14 project oblasts, 18 regional and 2 national academic conferences and workshops were held. Over 100 presentations were delivered at different levels for teachers, instructors from universities and In-Service Teacher Training Institutes (ITTIs), educational administrators, methodologists from education authorities, and other groups of educators, reaching out to 3,600 participants.

 

The project impact has been demonstrated through visible resource savings. It is estimated, that after the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ course participants cut their consumption of water and electricity by 10-11% and managed to reduce the amount of garbage by 15-18%.

 

During 2013-2014 a review competition under the theme ‘Sustainable School’ was held for schools that were involved in the project. The main objective of this activity was to support schools and their local communities in their journey towards a sustainable lifestyle. In 2014, based on the competition results, 27 schools were recognized as ‘Sustainable Schools’.

 

However, it should be mentioned that owing to the political developments in the last months of 2014, the process of the project implementation was partially changed. In particular, the annexation of Crimea by Russia and the occupation of the peninsula rendered the project activities impossible in this region. All Ukrainian education curricula were suspended and the use of Ukrainian methodological and learning materials prohibited.

 

With the terrorist regimes established in Donetsk and Luganks oblasts, armed hostilities against Ukrainian military made further dissemination of educational initiatives impossible in some areas of these two oblasts. In the territories controlled by militants, Ukrainian learning subjects are prohibited; there are no opportunities to organize regular classes, etc. Many schools have been occupied by terrorists and damaged. In Lugansk oblast the regional coordinator and the trainers live in cities that are temporarily under terrorist control. In fact, presently all communication with them has been lost. Hence, the project was put on hold in this oblast.

 

In this academic year the usual educational activities, the introduction of new courses (in addition to the existing ones) and the delivery of student books to these territories have been much more complicated, but still continue. The travelling within the region became a serious challenge, which, since recently may endanger the lives of trainers and teachers, thus ruling out the possibility of holding training workshops. The Government’s policy of budgetary savings at the expense of education led to another significant problem, because during 2014/2015 less funds were allocated to pay teachers who deliver ESD as an optional subject.

 

 

1.3       Aims and objectives of the study

Within the ‘Education for Sustainable Development in Action’ project, a team of experts involved by the TDP (under the guidance of Olena Pometun, Doctor of Pedagogy, professor) conducted a research study to evaluate the impact of the pedagogical model, which had been introduced in Ukraine to teach ESD at schools, on the project’s target groups. The study was carried out during the second semester of 2014, between September and November. The research team consisted of 6 experts, including 2 representatives from ITTIs from selected oblasts, 2 TDP members and 2 academics from the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine.

 

The objectives of the study were to:

  1. Explore the impact of the ‘Education for Sustainable Development in Action’ project on the key target groups, and, specifically:

-       to determine whether there have been any changes in everyday behaviour, habits and awareness of the key target groups of the project (i.e. students, parents, teachers) who study the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ course or take part in the relevant extra-curricular activities, and how sustainable these changes are;

-       to find out whether there have been any changes in the participants’ attitudes towards resource saving and sustainable lifestyle since they became involved in the project;

-       to explore the social and social-and-pedagogical impact of the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ course that builds on the empowerment pedagogy;

-       to find out how the practice of teaching the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ influences the professional competence of the teacher;

-       to assess the impact of the activities carried out by schools that follow a whole-school approach on their students, teachers and parents.

  1. To identify strengths and weaknesses in the design and management of the project in order to enhance its impact on the above target groups.
  2. To improve the tools for on-going monitoring and evaluation of the project impact.

 

1.4       Representatives of the target groups involved in the study

A number of questionnaires were used to survey representatives of the key target groups in 6 oblasts of Ukraine. For the purposes of the study we selected three oblasts (Lviv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Khmelnytskyi) where the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ have been taught at schools since 2013. There we distributed questionnaires among grade 5 and 9 students who studied the subject in 2013/2014 academic year, their teachers and parents. In the other three oblasts (Kharkiv, Ternopil, and Cherkassy) we invited the staff from Sustainable Schools, winners of the 2014 review competition, that pursue a whole-school approach to ESD. Additionally, a separate survey was conducted with the ESD coordinators in 12 project oblasts.

 

The study was carried out in urban schools since the questions suggested in the questionnaires related to lifestyles typical for a city/town. The total planned number of respondents was 1,000.

 

The respondents were selected with a view to further compare and summarize their answers as follows:

 

- compare the responses of grade 5 and 9 students (and their parents) who studied the LSD course with the responses from those who did not;

- compare the responses from upper secondary students (grades 10 and 11) who had studied the LSD 2 or 3 years ago with the responses by their peers who had not taken the course; and

- compare the responses from students who studied the LSD course with the responses from those who did not participate in it directly but who attend the schools with a whole-school approach to ESD.

 

Besides, the analysis of responses from teachers who teach the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ and from parents could offer further insights into the impact of the course on these target groups.

 

The analysis of responses from the administrators from the schools with a whole-school approach to ESD could provide a generalized description of such an approach in Ukrainian schools.

 

The responses from regional coordinators served to outline ideas for further development of ESD beyond the project.

 

The quantitative data for each group of respondents are given in Table 1.

 

Table 1. Groups and numbers of respondents engaged in the study

Groups of respondents who are project participants

Number of persons from each oblast

Groups of respondents who are not project participants

Number of persons from each oblast

Comments

Total

Regional coordinators

1

 

 

All project oblasts

12

Administrators from schools with a whole-school approach

10

 

 

Selected from those recognized as Sustainable Schools based on the results of the 2014 review competition

10

Grade 9 students who studied the LSD course in the previous academic year

50

Grade 9 students who did not study the LSD course in the previous academic year

50

Lviv, Khmelnytskyi, and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts

365

Grade 9 students who studied the LSD course in the previous academic year

25

 

 

Cherkassy, Ternopil, and Kharkiv oblasts

126

Grade 10 and 11 students who studied the LSD course in the previous academic year at the schools with a whole-school approach

25

 

 

Charkassy, Ternopil, and Kharkiv oblasts

106

Grade 5 students who studied the LSD course in the previous academic year

25

Grade 5 students who did not study the LSD course in the previous academic year

25

Lviv, Khmelnytskyi, and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts

352

SD teachers

2

 

 

Cherkassy, Ternopil, and Kharkiv oblasts

10

Parents of students who studied ESD in the previous academic year

10

 

 

Lviv, Khmelnytskyi, and Dnipropetrovsk oblasts

55

Parents of students who studied the LSD course in the previous academic year at schools with a whole-school approach

5

 

 

Cherkassy, Ternopil, and Kharkiv oblasts

15

Total

Approximately 1,000 persons from 6 oblasts

1050

 

 


 

2.         OVERALL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

The main research tool of the study included a set of questionnaires and survey forms specifically designed for individual target groups. The items in the questionnaires for students (annexes 1 and 2) and parents (annex 3) related to the same issues, but were formulated differently. The teachers were asked to complete a special survey form that revealed changes in their practice, which had taken place as a result of ESD teaching (annex 4). Similarly, special survey forms were offered to the administrators of schools working within a whole-school approach (annex 5), and to the ESD coordinators in different oblasts (annex 6). The participating schools were also invited to help summarize best ESD practices (annex 7).

 

Each survey form was designed around a number of indicators used to explore the project’s impact on the student/teacher/parent awareness and attitudes to different SD areas, and to determine the actual parameters of this impact. The identified parameters then allowed for estimating the levels of the students’ knowledge and skills – i.e. low, intermediate and high – in relation to each of the suggested impact indicators.

 

The questionnaires and survey forms contained several types of items, as follows:

 

1) closed questions (with possible answers ‘yes’ and ‘no’) to find out and ascertain the presence of a given indicator or sign of impact;

 

2) open-ended questions with 3 or 4 answer options to determine the position (motives, attitudes) of the respondents regarding the behaviour indicated;

 

3) open questions with a possibility to give multiple answers, but without pre-determined answer options, to find out the level of respondent’s awareness about possible everyday behaviours;

 

4) fully open questions, whereby the respondents were asked to give an extended answer in a free format. This type of items explored the specific nature of ESD teaching in different oblasts of Ukraine.

 

The responses to the first three item types were processed using mathematical statistics methods (annex 8) to generalize the results and allow for in-depth analysis.

 

In individual cases the data from 2014 were compared with the data from the previous research carried out by the TDP experts in 2013 (e.g. the data for students who did not study the course)[1].

 


 

3.         Students Performance Analysis

 

3.1       Behaviour & awareness, 9th grade

Methodology for determining the overall impact of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in 9th-grade students’ daily behavior and awareness.

 

9th-grade students who studied “Lessons for Sustainable Development” course last year were suggested to fill in the questionnaire consisting of 3 parts:

1. Students’ attitude and approach to the following aspects:

a)      Rational use of water

b)      Energy saving

c)      Wastes reduction

d)      Health maintenance

e)      Environmental protection

2. Students’ attitude to the suggested pedagogical model.

3. Daily behavior regarding water, energy and waste managing.

The first of the mentioned question sets consisted of 14 questions (2-3 to study each of the mentioned aspects). All the questions were open-ended questions with 3 answer choices.

The study of each aspect involved (except for the environmental concern) answering 3 questions, including:

1st question to determine the student’s attitude to the problem (whether it is a question of her/his personal concern);

2nd and 3rd questions: description of the behavior pattern the student choses in a given situation.

For example, in “Water Saving” set, the respondents were asked to answer the following questions:

1) Do you try to use water rationally in your daily life?

2) When a pipe leaks in the street near my house, I ...

3) When my family buy a new washing machine, I…

Thus, it was assumed that the answers to the 2nd and 3rd questions will check whether the attitude to the problem, expressed in the response to the first question, can be expressed in student’s behavior.

Each question had 3 answer options which clarified student’s attitude to the topic. For example:

1. Do you try to use water rationally in your daily life?

-          Yes, because the lack of drinking water is a problem for many people in our country and in the world.

-          Yes, because it helps my family save money.

-          I do not think it is necessary.

The sequence of the proposed answers to all questions was the following:

1) the most active position, willingness to act towards a solution;

2) willingness to act but under certain conditions (for example, only if it brings financial benefits);

3) lack of motivation and desire to do something, passive position of non-interference.

Accordingly, in the evaluation process, each response gave a certain number of points. The first response gave the maximum number of points (2). The second response gave 1 point. The last option gave 0 points.

Additional information on how the attitude affects the behavior was given by part 3 of the questionnaire, in which the students were proposed to name the behavior patterns that correspond to the declared attitude. This was done using 3 open-ended questions with no fixed answers regarding the attitude to water, energy and waste management. Each question suggested naming a few ways of dealing with the above-mentioned problem. A person could give the complete answers only having an experience of appropriate behavior. For example:

To use water rationally in daily life, you should:

1)      _____________________________________________________________

2)      _____________________________________________________________

3)      _____________________________________________________________

4)      _____________________________________________________________

5)      _____________________________________________________________

Each of the following answers were estimated as one point, that is the maximum number of points for each open-ended question equaled 5. These conditional indicators allowed us to identify the overall effect of the course, its impact on students’ awareness and attitude, as well as the formation of their preferred behavior patterns.

The quantitative results of the survey were processes by the methods of mathematical statistics (Appendix 8).

The second part of the questionnaire was to identify the ESD impact on social behavior of students and their attitude to the applied pedagogical model. This part consisted of 4 open-ended questions with one or several proposed options (their number ranged from 3 to 16):

1. What do I think about the work in our Eco Group (Eco Team)?

2. Discussions and meetings of our Eco Team in the classroom and after them were, in my opinion, ...

3. What do I think about the work in the classroom during the “Lessons for Sustainable Development?”

4. What were the relationships during the lessons?

5. What do I think about home assignments and projects for the “Lessons for Sustainable Development”.

This questionnaire (except for the second part) was offered to the 9th-grade students at the schools where ESD is a separate course. Their responses were compared with the responses of the students who did not study the course.

The same questionnaire was offered to the 9-10-11th-grade students with the whole-school approach. Their results were compared with each other and with the results of the students who studied the course, and with similar results obtained last year.

 

3.2       Results with a whole-school approach

The results of the impact analysis of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in attitudes and awareness of 9-10-11th-grade students at schools where ESD presents a whole-school approach.

 

The first part of the questionnaire for the 9th-grade students included the questions to determine the attitude of the students to the main areas of SD. Each question was evaluated by a relevant score ranging from 0 to 2. To obtain the generalized results shown below, the calculations of every sector in separate areas were obtained initially (the example of such calculations for one of the areas are given in Annex 9).

According to the survey results, we grouped the answers by the following levels:

-       Low – the number of respondents who scored 0 points;

-       Average - the number of respondents who scored 1 point;

-       High - the number of respondents who scored 2 points.

Let us consider the obtained results in more detail. Firstly, we present data on the students’ attitudes from schools with a whole-school approach (WSA) in three regions to 5 SD aspects, mentioned above (water saving, energy saving, health care, environmental protection), obtained after the analysis of the first questionnaire part for this category. In Table 2 and Figure 1, given below, we can see a comparison of the results of the participants from Kharkiv region – 9th-grade and 10-11th- grade students (delayed effect).

 

Table 2

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Kharkiv Region Students

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD course last year (people)

10-11th-grade students who studied LSD earlier

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD course last year (relative share)

10-11th-grade students

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

4

2

0,09

0,06

0,03

Average

14

7

0,32

0,19

0,13

High

26

27

0,59

0,75

0,16

Total

44

36

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.1. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in Kharkiv region

 

Comparison of data presented in the table, first of all, shows fairly good results for the 9th-grade students; almost 32% of them showed an average level, 59% - high level of conscious attitude to SD issues. On the other hand, we can see a striking fact that these levels do not only stay at the same level after finishing two more years of formal education in secondary school (10-11th-grade students), but vice versa - increase, even surpassing the results of the 9th-grade students.

 

 

 

Here are similar data for two other regions (Table 3.4, fig. 2,3).

 

Table 3

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Cherkasy Region Students

 

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD course last year (people)

10-11th-grade students who studied LSD earlier

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD course last year (relative share)

10-11th-grade students

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

15

4

0,27

0,20

0,07

Average

20

7

0,36

0,35

0,01

High

20

9

0,37

0,45

0,08

Total

55

20

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.2. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in Cherkasy region

 

Table 4

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Ternopil Region Students

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD course last year (people)

10-11th-grade students who studied LSD earlier

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD course last year (relative share)

10-11th-grade students

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

2

7

0,07

0,14

0,07

Average

10

19

0,37

0,38

0,01

High

15

24

0,56

0,48

0,08

Total

27

50

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.3. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in Ternopil region

 

As we can see from the tables and figures, the above-mentioned trends are common for all three regions. Slightly lower results of the 10-11th-grade students are in Ternopil region, however overall value is rather significant (38% of students have an average level, 48% - high level). The same trends are clearly demonstrated by Table 5 and Figure 4, which show that the senior students results are even higher the 9th-graders by the number of students who have high level.

 

Table 5

Collective Results of Student Survey for Kharkiv, Cherkasy and Ternopil Region Schools with WSA

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD (relative share)

10-11th-grade students who studied the course

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,14

0,13

0,01

Average

0,35

0,31

0,04

High

0,51

0,56

0,05

Total

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.4. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in three regions

 

Let us turn to a performance analysis of students’ responses for the 3rd part of the questionnaire which allow assessing their awareness level of the possible patterns of water, energy and waste treatment. We will start again by comparing data of 9th-grade students with 10-11th-grade students from schools with WSA in Kharkiv region (Table 10, Fig.9).

 

Table 10

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Kharkiv Region Students

 

9th-grade students (relative share)

10-11th-grade students (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,26

0,28

0,02

Average

0,45

0,42

0,03

High

0,29

0,30

0,01

Total

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.9. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in Kharkiv region

 

As we can see, the indicators of students’ awareness on specific behavior patterns are lower than attitudes indicators, pointing at the necessity to pay more attention to these issues in the classroom. However, the trends in the division of three classes of students into the levels remain the same: students’ performance indicators are almost the same in different classes.

 

Let us see the results of two other regions - participants of the study (Table 11, 12, Fig. 10, 11).

 

Table 11

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Cherkasy Region Students

 

9th-grade students (relative share)

10-11th-grade students (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,53

0,55

0,02

Average

0,46

0,38

0,08

High

0,01

0,07

0,06

Total

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.10. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in Cherkasy region

 

Table 12

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Ternopil Region Students

 

9th-grade students (relative share)

10-11th-grade students (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,26

0,15

0,11

Average

0,56

0,65

0,09

High

0,18

0,20

0,02

Total

1

1

 

 

Fig.11. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in Ternopil region

 

According to the table, the performance results in Cherkasy region are relatively low, compared to other regions. For example, the number of students with low level in the 9th and 10-11th-grade makes more than 50%. However, in both regions, the results of all classes are almost the same, and in Ternopil region, the results of 10-11th-grade students are even higher than the results of the 9th-graders. The collective results of the students’ responses analysis of the third part of the questionnaire also show high results of 10-11th-grade students (Table 13, Figure 12).

 


 

Table 13

Collective Results of Student Survey for Kharkiv, Cherkasy and Ternopil Region Schools

 

 

9th-grade students (relative share)

10-11th-grade students (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,35

0,32

0,03

Average

0,49

0,48

0,01

High

0,16

0,20

0,04

Total

1

1

 

 

 

 

Fig.12. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in three regions

 

If we compare the results of 10-11th-grade students (Fig. 13 – the results of the first part of the questionnaire, Fig. 14 - the results of the third part of the questionnaire) we see that the difference between these indicators is insignificant and is within the limits of mathematical error. Thus, we can conclude that for 10-11th-grade students in schools with WSA, there is no leveling in the achieved changes of students’ behavior and awareness.

 

Fig.13. Correlation of survey results of 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in three regions regarding their attitude to SD area

 

 

 

Fig.14. Correlation of survey results of 10th – 11th-grade students in schools with WSA in three regions regarding their awareness level in SD area

 

 

3.3.      Results where ESD is a separate subject

The results of the impact analysis of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in attitudes and awareness of 9-10-11th-grade students at schools where ESD is taught as a separate subject (course)

 

Let us turn to the results of students who studied LSD as a separate course for one year in other three regions. They are compared with the responses of the students who did not study LSD at all. The analysis of the students’ responses to the first part of the questionnaire is presented in Tables 6, 7, 8 and Figures 5, 6, 7.

 

Table 6

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Khmelnitsky Region Students

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD (relative share)

Students who didn’t study LSD

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,05

0,18

0,13

Average

0,31

0,42

0,11

High

0,64

0,40

0,24

Total

1

1

 

 


 

Table 7

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Dnipropetrovsk Region Students

 

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD (relative share)

Students who didn’t study LSD

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,15

0,24

0,09

Average

0,38

0,49

0,11

High

0,47

0,27

0,20

Total

1

1

 

 

Table 8

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Lviv Region Students

 

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD (relative share)

9th-grade students who didn’t study LSD

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,20

0,39

0,19

Average

0,49

0,43

0,06

High

0,31

0,18

0,13

Total

1

1

 

 

 

 

Fig.5, 6, 7. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools of Khmelnitsky, Dnipropetrovsk and Lviv regions

 

Data analysis shows that in all three regions, the level of students, who study LSD course, significantly exceeds the level of their peers who do not study it. Most of them have high and average levels of developing their positive attitude to solving the sustainable development problems. Data from three mentioned regions indicate it (Table 9, Figure 8).

 

Table 9

Collective Results of Student Survey for Khmelnitsky, Dnipropetrovsk and Lviv Region Schools

 

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD (relative share)

9th-grade students who didn’t study LSD

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,13

0,27

0,14

Average

0,39

0,45

0,06

High

0,48

0,28

0,20

Total

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.8. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools of three regions

 

Let us note that the performance indicators of students who did not study LSD in Dnipropetrovsk region are a bit higher than in other regions. Perhaps this is due to the large-scale experiment conducted in the schools of this region with advanced education for sustainable development. Within its framework, various extracurricular activities have been implemented since 2009.

 

At the same time, it should be emphasized that the results of 9th-graders who study LSD as a subject coincide with the results of the students in schools with WSA.

 

Let us turn to the result of the students from three regions who study LSD as a separate subject for one year. The responses analysis of the students of the third part of the questionnaire is presented in Tables 14, 15, 16 and Figures 13, 14, 15.

 


 

Table 14

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Khmelnitsk Region Students

 

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD (relative share)

9th-grade students who didn’t study LSD

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,36

0,63

0,33

Average

0,55

0,35

0,25

High

0,09

0,02

0,07

Total

1

1

 

 

Table 15

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Dnipropetrovsk Region Students

 

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD (relative share)

9th-grade students who didn’t study LSD

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,37

0,44

0,07

Average

0,55

0,49

0,06

High

0,08

0,07

0.01

Total

1

1

 

 

Table 16

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Lviv Region Students

 

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD (relative share)

9th-grade students who didn’t study LSD

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,05

0,64

0,59

Average

0,71

0,35

0,36

High

0,24

0,01

0,23

Total

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.13, 14, 15. Correlation of survey results of 9th-grade students in schools who studied and did not study the course in Khmelnitsky, Dnipropetrovsk and Lviv regions

 

Performance results presented in the tables and figures clearly illustrate that the awareness of the students who did not study LSD, regarding the specific behavior patterns focused on sustainable development, is much lower than the level of students who took this course. The exception is Dnipropetrovsk region only, where this gap is smaller than in other two regions, apparently due to the multiannual regional experiment in this area. Collective data from three regions illustrate these trends (Table 17, Figure 16).

 

Table 17

Collective Results of Student Survey for Khmelnitsky, Dnipropetrovsk and Lviv Region Schools

 

 

9th-grade students who studied LSD last year (relative share)

9th-grade students who didn’t study LSD

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0,26

0,57

0,31

Average

0,60

0,40

0,20

High

0,14

0,03

0,11

Total

1

1

 

 

 

Fig.16. Correlation of survey results of 9th – 10th – 11th-grade students in schools of three regions

 


 

3.4. 9th-grade students’ opinions and social competence

Answering the second part of the questionnaire, the students who studied LSD expressed their views on the work in Eco Teams. 47% liked the Eco Teams meetings, and 50% think that they can always express their own opinion during the discussions. 33% could always get help and support in their Eco Team, while 37% said that the work in Eco Team was improving during the year. 37% of 9th-grade students was looking forward to working as a team next year.

 

Far less students have negative attitude to working in teams: 8% of students are not involved in the work of Eco Teams, 9% mention that when discussing, one or two people dominate, and the rest just listen to them, almost 2% did not want to work in Eco Teams for various reasons.

 

As for the discussions and meetings in Eco Teams during the lessons and after school, 53% of the students thought they lasted exactly as long as they had to. 11% of the students believed they were too long and 10% - too short.

 

Most students are positive about their work in the classroom during the “Lessons for Sustainable Development”: 74% said that the lessons are fun and interesting, 33% named them inspiring. Only 1% of students consider them boring, 2% - difficult.

 

Obviously, such an assessment of lessons is connected to the relationships between the students in the classroom, as 61% of children rated them as the cooperation. Only 10% called them competitive and 11% thought there are always the individuals who dominate. Moreover, 33% of students think that during the “Lessons for Sustainable Development”, the relationships in their class became better, 23% believe that they are the same as before. No one mentioned that the relationships worsened.

 

The students give almost the same assessment to their home assignments during the “Lessons for Sustainable Development”: 56 and 45% of the students call them easy and inspiring, while 1 and 3% respectively call them difficult and boring. 38% of students mentioned that they did not need help with their home assignment, as it was not complicated. 28% got assistance in the family when doing their home assignments, and 24% told their family about their homework. 14% did not get any help when doing their homework, 2% of students think that no one cares.

 

Regarding the projects carried out during the study, 20% of students saw some practical results. 31% saw that people to whom they turned to were interested. 32% would like to carry out the projects. However, 14% of the students indicated that they worked mainly with information during the project. 3% felt is was to get people interested, 2% did not want to work with projects anymore.

 

3.5. Overall impact on behaviour and awareness

Determination of the overall impact of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in daily behavior and awareness of 5th-grade students

 

5th-grade students, who studied “Lessons for Sustainable Development” course last year, were suggested to fill in a questionnaire (Appendix 2), which consisted of 3 parts - conditional sets:

 

1. Students attitude and approach to the following aspects:

a)      Rational use of water

b)      Energy saving

c)      Wastes reduction

In general, every set had 3 questions (3 for every mentioned aspect). All the questions were open-ended questions with 3 answer choices. For example, in “Water Saving” set the respondents were to answer the following question:

  1. 1.      Do you try to use water efficiently in your daily life?

 

Each question had 3 options which clarified the child's attitude to the suggested topic. For example:

1. Do you try to use water rationally in you daily life?

-          Yes, because the lack of drinking water is a problem for many people in our country and in the world.

-          Yes, because it helps my family save money.

-          I do not think it is necessary.

 

Accordingly, in the evaluation process each response gave a certain number of points. The first response gave the maximum number of points (2). The second response gave 1 point. The last option gave 0 points.

 

Additional information on how the attitude affects the behavior was given by part 3 of the questionnaire in which the students were proposed to name the behavior patterns that corresponded to the declared attitude. This was done using 6 open-ended questions as for the attitude to water, energy and waste handling. Each question suggested naming a few ways of dealing with the above-mentioned problem, give “yes/no” answer, or characterize your behavior using the ranking (from 1 to 5). For example:

 

  1. 1.      Keeping an eye on water:

- I avoid leaving my tap open when cleaning teeth and washing my face    1 2 3 4 5

- Washing the dishes, I use a bowl and then quickly rinse them.                  1 2 3 4 5

- I open the faucet so that water flows in a thin trickle.                                 1 2 3 4 5

 

  1. 2.      Am I clean?

- When I take a shower, I usually:

(A) take it for 5 minutes                                                                              No / Yes

(B) take it for 15 minutes                                                                            No / Yes

(C) take a bath more often than I wash myself in a shower                        No / Yes

 

Each of the following answers gave one point, that is the maximum number of points for each question was 5: “yes” answer – one point, “no” - 0 points. These conditional indicators allowed us to identify the overall effect of the course, its impact on students’ awareness and attitude, as well as the formation of their preferred behavior patterns.

The quantitative results of the survey were processes by the methods of mathematical statistics (Appendix 7).

 

According to the survey results, we grouped the answers by the following levels:

-       Low – the number of respondents who scored 0-1 point;

-       Average - the number of respondents who scored 2-3 point;

-       High - the number of respondents who scored 4-5 points.

The second part of the questionnaire was to identify the impact of LSD on social behavior of students, as well as their attitude to the applied pedagogical model. This part consisted of 2 open-end questions with one or more suggested answers (their number ranged from 4 to 15):

1. What do I think about the work in our Eco Group (Eco Team)?

2. What do I think about home assignments and projects?

 

The same questionnaire was offered to the 5th-grade students in schools where ESD is a separate subject. Their responses were compared with the responses from the same questionnaire of the students who did not study this course at school.

 

3.6. Impact analysis of LSD as a separate subject

The results of the impact analysis of the proposed pedagogical model on changes in daily behavior and awareness of 5th-grade students at schools where ESD is taught as a separate subject (course)

 

The obtained results (average indicator for the first three questions of the questionnaire) show that the 5th-grade students from 3 regions with the LSD studied as a separate subject in primary school, quite consciously treat the issues of resources saving and waste reduction. This also applies to those who studied the LSD and those who did not study, which is reflected by the results of the calculations in three regions.

 

The response analysis of the students to the first part of the questionnaire is presented in Tables and Figure below:

 

Table 18

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Lviv Region Students

 

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (people)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year (people)

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (relative share)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

1

9

0,02

0,12

0,10

Average

12

17

0,22

0,22

0,00

High

42

50

0,76

0,66

0,10

Total

55

76

1

1

 

 

 

 

Table 19

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Dnipropetrovsk Region Students

 

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (people)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year (people)

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (relative share)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year

 (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

1

6

0,02

0,10

0,08

Average

12

18

0,20

0,30

0,10

High

47

36

0,78

0,60

0,18

Total

60

60

1

1

 

 

Table 20

Quantitative Results of a Survey of Khmelnitsky Region Students

 

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (people)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year (people)

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (relative share)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year (relative share)

Difference in relative shares

Low

0

1

0,00

0,02

0,02

Average

11

16

0,19

0,28

0,09

High

47

41

0,81

0,70

0,11

Total

58

58

1

1

 

 

To confirm the obtained results, let us consider the collective results from three regions.

 

Table 21

Collective Results of Student Survey for Khmelnitsky, Dnipropetrovsk and Lviv Region Schools

Levels

Khmelnitsky Region

Dnipropetrovsk Region

Lviv Region

 

 

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (relative share)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year (relative share)

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (relative share)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year (relative share)

5th-grade students who studied LSD last year (relative share)

5th-grade students who didn’t study LSD last year (relative share)

 

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

Low

0,00

0,02

0,02

0,10

0,02

0,12

 

Average

0,19

0,28

0,20

0,30

0,22

0,22

 

High

0,81

0,70

0,78

0,60

0,76

0,66

 

Total

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

Fig... Correlation of survey results of 5th-grade students in Khmelnitsky region schools

 

As we can see, the performance indicators in all three regions are almost the same, that is, the students who have studied the course show higher results than those who did not study. However, the responses of students in other classes show that most 5th-grade students understand the need for resource-saving and environmentally friendly behavior.

 

3.7. 5th-grade students’ opinions and social competence

The response analysis to the questions of the second part of the questionnaire shows the attitude of students to the pedagogical model applied. Thus, answering the questions about working in groups, about 50% of 5th-grade students liked the meetings with Eco Teams. About 42% of students feel they can always express their views during the Eco Team meetings. The same number of students would like to work in Eco Teams in future. Only 6.7% of all students are not involved in the work of Eco Teams, and only 3% of students do not want to work in Eco Teams anymore (Table 22). Thus, we can assume that this part of the pedagogical model (the group work during the year) is supported by most students, and should be developed and systematically improved.

 

Table 22

The Response Analysis of Lviv, Dnipropetrovsk, Khmelnitsky Regions Students to Questions about their Attitude to work in Groups (Eco Teams) during lessons

 

 

% to the total number of respondents

 

I like Eco Team meetings

50

I feel I can always express my opinion

42

I hope to work again in Eco Teams

42%

I do not participate

6,7%

I would never like to work again

3%

 

The students’ response analysis of their home assignments shows that 69.3% of students find them easy, 52.6% - inspiring. Only 6.6% of students believe the assignments are complicated, 12% - boring (Table 23).

Table 23

Students’ Response Analysis to Assess Home Assignments for LSD Course

 

Home Assignment

% to the total number of students

Easy

69,3

Inspiring

52,6

Complicated

6,6

Boring

12

 

43.3% of students said they got assistance in the family asking others for help while learning LSD. 45% of the students did not need help, relying on their own abilities. 28% of students got their family members interested in studying. 10% did not receive any help, about 1.2% indicated that their family members were not interested in their studying (Table 24).

 

Table 24

Students’ Response Analysis Regarding Help they Received during LSD Course

 

Help

% to the total number of students

I got help

43,3

I didn’t need help

45

Others were interested

28

No help

10

No one cared

1,2

 

Most part of the students positively assessed the projects carried out during the LSD course. Thus, almost 40% said they saw practical results, 16% said others were interested in the projects, 59% hope to work on projects in future. However, 13.3% of students say it was difficult to involve others in the project, 2.2% do not ever want to carry out the projects.

 

Table 25

Analysis of Students’ Responses Regarding the Projects Carried out during LSD Course

 

Project

Lviv Region

Saw practical results

40

People were interested

40

Hope to work with projects

59

Was difficult to get interested

13,3

Don’t EVER want to carry out a project

2,2

 


 

4. ANALYSIS BY TEACHERS AND PARENTS

 

Analysis of survey results by teachers and parents involved in the project.

 

4.1. Impact on student behaviour and teacher practice

Findings from the analysis of the impact of the proposed pedagogical model on the changes in everyday behaviour and professional practice in ESD teachers

 

To explore the impact of the pedagogical model used in ESD teaching on this group of respondents, they were asked to complete a special survey form (annex 4), which comprises 4 sections:

 

1. The decision to teach ESD

2. Your personal lifestyle

3. Experience of ESD teaching

4. Looking forward

 

Each section contained 3 items (or questions) broken down into sub-items. All of them were open-ended to elicit answers in a free format.

 

When describing their first encounter with ESD, the teachers noted that it happened only within the project, i.e. during workshops or meetings of the pedagogical council where the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ curriculum was presented. The majority of the respondents remarked that this learning subject attracted their interest from the very start and they were motivated to teach it.

 

At the same time, 30% reported concerns related to the need to use unusual learning activities, not familiar to them; a few of the respondents were worried about the optional status of the subject and, consequently, that it would appear at the end of the schedule, that is the 7th or 8th lesson in the school day.

 

When answering the question about the reasons that prompted the decision to become an ESD teacher, the respondents stressed the compelling, modern and innovative nature of this subject; the fact that it teaches children and parents understand the challenges of today; that the issues it reflects were close to their own lives; and that they wanted to help students change their habits. One more important factor, in their view, was the availability of the teaching materials. Among other reasons, which encouraged them to make a choice in favour of ESD were: an exciting training workshop to introduce them to the teaching methodology (cited by 50% of the respondents), looking through and reading the student book (20%), personal interest in the issue. In the opinion of the survey participants, the measures to attract new teachers to ESD may include awareness-raising to promote the idea of SD, the content and teaching methods of the curriculum ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ (LSD); securing support from the school administration; and presentations by expert speakers.

 

One of the items in the second section asked the respondents about the things that were difficult to understand at first when they were beginning to teach the course. The teachers indicated that it was challenging for them to follow the recommendations which were suggested to children; to understand when and where this knowledge may be used or why they should be economical with things which seemed to be plentiful; how to save and live comfortably at the same time. Also, it took the teachers some time to grasp the gist of the SD idea, to internalize the content themes and the methodology of the subject. After teacher training workshops the majority still continued to study the student book and the syllabus, look for additional literature, and explore further teaching ideas.

 

When describing the changes in own lifestyles, 70% of the respondents indicated that these changes happened gradually, and the other 30% either lived by SD principles already or revised their lifestyle from the very beginning. The specific changes that teachers adopted themselves included replacing traditional light bulbs with energy-efficient ones, monitoring the consumption of water and electricity, sorting garbage, making their flat cold-proof, cutting down on disposable packaging, buying less stuff, and going without meat dishes for one day. Only one of the respondents had failed to make the kind of changes that she would be happy with.

 

Among their new daily habits the teachers mentioned switching to a reusable shopping bag, unplugging the electrical appliances to avoid leaving them in a stand-by mode, taking a quick shower, using paper economically, giving up packaging or non-environmentally friendly cleaning products.

 

When explaining to motives behind these actions, the teachers noted:

 

  • It’s become a part of my lifestyle.
  • [It helps] to save the family budget.
  • [It brings] moral satisfaction.
  • ‘The destiny of nature’ depends on us.
  • I want to live what I preach.
  • I am used to behaving this way.

 

All the respondents agreed that these changes had been the result of the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’, because before they started teaching it:

 

  • Not all actions were pursued.
  • I wasn’t really aware how bad the situation is with the environment.
  • Never paid attention to it (50%).
  • Sometimes we were too lazy to sort garbage; we used to buy stuff we didn’t really need.

 

All 100% of the respondents reported that they were happy with these changes and noted that now they:

 

  • save their household budget;
  • feel comfortable in their new lifestyle;
  • gain a sense of moral satisfaction.

 

As for the question on how many members of their family became engaged in these actions, the teachers informed that almost all family did (or a total of 40 persons for the 9 teachers who participated in the survey).

 

The majority of the respondents shared their new experiences with family members (30%), with colleagues at the meetings of the methodology unit (50%), in personal conversations with colleagues and with a larger group of teachers at the pedagogical council meetings (30%). Moreover, 90% noted that their ideas were supported by co-workers and family.

 

The third section of the survey form invited teachers to review their experience of delivering ESD. The respondents stressed a number of changes in their teaching methods, which they also incorporated into other subjects:

 

  • [I started to] use more group activities, interactive training exercises, field trips.
  • Allowing more opportunities for independent work in groups.
  • Interactive methodology and lessons.
  • Game-based teaching methods
  • [I] use the audits in geography lessons.

 

Additionally, the teachers suggested new ideas on delivering the ESD curriculum, e.g.:

 

  • offering more practical learning sessions;
  • setting up a collection point for used batteries at the school;
  • creating a team of volunteers to clean a local river, pond, or stream;
  • establishing collaborative links with the environment protection agencies.

 

All teachers highlighted changes in their relationships with students, noting that:

 

  • The children became more receptive to the content of the course and more respectful of the teacher;
  • Now my students and I share the same way of thinking.
  • I use their actions as an example and they ‘borrow’ mine.
  • The children became more friendly and supportive.
  • The children are now more democratic.
  • The students are more open and sincere.

 

Speaking about the changes in student-student and student-teacher interactions, the respondents highlighted the following:

 

  • Our class activities have become an interesting and useful conversations.
  • Students are more considerate towards each other and the things around them.
  • Practical lessons help unite the class.
  • There emerged an atmosphere of trust and a sense of cooperativeness.
  • The climate is more friendly.
  • Now we understand each other better.

 

Also, the teachers agreed that the subject content and its teaching methodology were appropriate and well-designed and that no changes were required for either.

 

Thinking about long-term implications in relation to their own lives, 80% of the respondents believed that their lifestyle changes were irreversible. They noted that they had a clear understanding of their own purpose in teaching this subject; were fully aware of the need for everyone to adopt a sustainable lifestyle; and that this was something that they wanted to teach. Besides, the respondents pointed out to the fact that their colleagues supported these ideas, but needed more information. Some thought that teaching this subject influenced all aspects of the whole school.

 

           

4.2. Opinions of parents

Parent perspectives on the findings from the analysis of the impact of the proposed pedagogical model on the changes in everyday behaviour and awareness in students from the schools that offer ESD as a separate subject.

 

In our study we involved a separate group of respondents that consisted of the parents of students from 3 oblasts who study ESD as a distinct subject. They were asked to complete a survey form, which comprised 3 sections (annex 3).

 

  • Your thoughts about these lessons and related home tasks.
  • Daily habits of your family regarding the use of resources and other SD aspects.
  • Your opinion on the impact of these lessons – positive or negative – on your child’s habits.

 

The first section of the survey form included three open-ended items asking the respondents to share their general views about the lessons, home tasks and their own engagement in their child’s ESD learning.

 

In the second section, 11 open-ended items with 3 answer options regarding the everyday lifestyle of the family were identical to the items in the survey form for ninth-graders and related to the behaviour towards water, energy, garbage, health, and environment. Three other items in this section were open without answer options and involved specific behaviours towards water, energy, and garbage.

 

Finally, the third section consisted of 4 items. The first one asked for an extended answer in a free format, items 2-4 were multiple choice with 6 to 8 options.

 

The parents’ responses to item 1 were grouped according to the following ratings: ‘negative’, ‘neutral’, ‘rather positive’ (‘the lessons are ok’), ‘completely positive’ (‘glad that such lessons are offered in the school curriculum’). The analysis of these responses indicates that the majority of the respondents in all three oblasts were happy that their children had an opportunity to study ESD (see Table 30).

 

Table 30. Parent attitudes towards ESD teaching at school.

 

Attitude

Lviv oblast (persons)

Khmelnytskyi

oblast

(persons)

Dnipropetrovsk

oblast

(persons)

Lviv oblast
(decimals)

Khmelnytskyi

oblast

(decimals)

Dnipropetrovsk

oblast (decimals)

Negative

0

0

0

0,00

0,00

0,00

Neutral

0

1

0

0,00

0,07

0,00

Rather positive

5

3

3

0,25

0,20

0,15

Positive

15

11

17

0,75

0,73

0,85

Total

20

15

20

1

1

1

 

 

When asked about doing the home tasks together with their children, 70% of the parents expressed positive views (‘It was good to be included in these activities’), whereas 24% considered it too much work for them. Approximately 25% barely noticed that their child performed new assignments (see Table 31).

 

Table 31. Parent attitudes to doing home tasks in ESD together with their children.

 

Attitude

Lviv oblast (persons)

Khmelnytskyi

oblast

(persons)

Dnipropetrovsk

oblast

(persons)

Lviv oblast
(decimals)

Khmelnytskyi

oblast

(decimals)

Dnipropetrovsk

oblast (decimals)

It was good to be included

16

9

12

0,80

0,60

0,60

It was too much work

0

2

7

0,00

0,13

0,35

Barely noticed

4

4

1

0,20

0,27

0,05

Total

20

15

20

1

1

1

 

 

Nearly 60% of the parents noted that the delivery of ESD spurred new ideas, over 35% did not find anything new for themselves, but still believed that it was beneficial for their child to study the course. Only 4% of the parents either did not notice ESD or were negative about this subject. Evidently, this suggests that the teachers were successful in their efforts to engage parents in ESD alongside with their children. Moreover, this evidence proves the effective design of the ESD teaching and learning materials that imply active involvement of parents into the learning process (see Table 32).

 

Table 32. Changes in the parents’ everyday behaviour as a result of their children studying ESD.

Attitude

Lviv oblast (persons)

Khmelnytskyi

oblast

(persons)

Dnipropetrovsk

oblast

(persons)

Lviv oblast
(decimals)

Khmelnytskyi

oblast

(decimals)

Dnipropetrovsk

oblast (decimals)

Support the idea in general

9

3

9

0,45

0,20

0,45

Found new ideas for themselves

8

12

11

0,40

0,80

0,55

Barely noticed

1

0

0

0,05

0,00

0,00

Don’t want ESD to be taught

2

0

0

0,10

0,00

0,00

Total

20

15

20

1

1

1

The findings from the analysis of responses to section 2 of the survey form made it possible to determine the kind of changes in the lifestyle of the family, everyday behaviour of its members regarding resource saving, maintaining good health and preserving the environment.

 

In the course of data analysis we identified parents who don’t make any steps in the above directions. They make up a little over 1% of those participating in the study. Approximately 23% take SD actions from time to time (when they remember, have time, are in the mood, etc.) but are aware of their importance. Still, the largest group of the parents (72%) transformed the lifestyle of their family and consistently use sustainable behaviours in their daily life (see Table 33). This speaks of the real social impact of the course.

 

Table 33. Changes in the lifestyle of the family as a result of the child studying ESD.

 

Indicators

Lviv oblast (persons)

Khmelnytskyi

oblast

(persons)

Dnipropetrovsk

oblast

(persons)

Lviv oblast
(decimals)

Khmelnytskyi

oblast

(decimals)

Dnipropetrovsk

oblast (decimals)

Transformed the lifestyle of their family

16

11

13

0,80

0,73

0,65

Made some changes towards more sustainable behaviour

3

3

7

0,15

0,20

0,35

Did not change anything

1

1

0

0,05

0,07

0,00

Total

20

15

20

1

1

1

 

The overall purpose of section 3 in the survey form was to determine the general opinion of the parents concerning particular aspects and outcomes of their child’s learning.

 

When evaluating the home tasks, 42% of the parents indicated that they were interesting; 23% received new ideas regarding their own lifestyle when helping the child with his/her homework; and only 14% believed that the home tasks were too demanding on their time.

 

The parents welcomed their child’s participation in project work during the ESD course. Thus, 31% thought that it was a useful practical experience for students; 51% were proud that their child had contributed to projects; 29% reported being involved themselves; and only 1% of the parents did not know anything about their child working on the projects.

 

The majority of the parents noted visible changes in the habits and daily behaviour of their children. For example, 81% in this group of respondents noticed that the students became more mindful when using water and/or electricity; 63% reported that their child was more thorough about sorting garbage. Their social behaviour changed too. Thus, 40% of the parents observed that it was easier to discuss things and problem solve with the child, while 46% indicated the child’s more positive attitude to school generally.

 

In their responses, the parents mention a number of specific behaviour changes in children, e.g.:

 

-       saving water and energy;

-       efficient use of paper;

-       collecting scrap paper;

-       sorting garbage;

-       economical shopping;

-       more careful approach to choosing food products;

-       using less plastic cups and dishes, plastic bags;

-       interest in the efficient use of resources, the condition of the plumbing equipment, garbage sorting, readings of the utility meters, etc.

-       avoiding dropping litter in the street;

 

Additionally, the parents observed changes in the students’ social habits. They reported that their child:

           

-          had become more kind, it is easier to discuss and solve problems together;

-          tends to avoid conflict more;

-          treated his/her friends better;

-          became more responsible;

-          more conscientious in her studies.

 

In this respect it should be noted, that none of the parents mentioned any negative changes in the behaviour or habits of their child. This proves a positive impact that the proposed pedagogical model has on students and its high effectiveness.

 


 

5. THE PEDAGOGY

The main characteristics of the proposed esd pedagogical model, which is introduced as a whole-school approach (WSA)

 

5.1       A Whole-School Approach

The analysis of administrators’ responses from the schools where a whole-school approach is introduced allowed separating the components that define the WSA essence. They are the educational, environmental and social components of school activity, which together provide the basic performance results of CEI: the shift of behavior of all members of the educational process to the one focused on sustainable development. These components are shown in Fig.1.

 

In particular, they cover systematic teaching of LSD, the introduction of extra-curricular activities, focused on SD, the implementation of SD ideas in teaching various subjects, paradigm shift to the learner-oriented and active study; gradual transition to resource-saving, environmentally sound behavior of students and teachers of CEI, parents, community members, where the school is located; improvement of relations and interaction at the student - student, student - teacher, teacher - teacher, teachers - parents, teachers - administration, administration - parents - local community levels.

 

Fig. 1. Model of whole-school approach implementation in ESD

 

Let us consider the way these elements are reflected in the analysis results of an individual CEI activity.

 

5.2       Educational aspects

 

Teaching the “Lessons for Sustainable Development” course

Among the characteristics of educational activities of a school, where WSA is implemented, the teaching of “Lessons for Sustainable Development” takes the first place within the following system: 3-4th grades, 8-9th grades, and the subject covers 25 to 40% of the students involved.

 

Extracurricular activities in the field of education for sustainable development

The lessons are supplemented with extracurricular activities. 5-7th grades in part of schools work with the course-book by O. Pometun, I. Sushchenko, A. Topuzov “Lessons of sustainable development: how to organize extracurricular activities of primary school pupils”. In other classes, educational work plans contain educational activities related to sustainable development and are conducted systematically. Among the interesting forms of extra-curricular activities developed in these schools are:

-       groups working with sustainable development topics, such as “Geo Сlub”, “AQUA” club, etc;

-       photo exhibitions, drawing competitions, brain-rings, sustainable development trainings;

-       annual Week of sustainable development, which involves not only еру students and teachers of the institution, but their parents and residents of the district as well;

-       special educational hours and hours of communication on the following topics: “Walking down the path of life smiling”; “Our class - our home, we build our life in it”, “Future of the country in the hands of children”, “Comfortable environment” etc;

-       activities of children's organizations, such as “Ecological Guard”;

-       volunteer movement “School is the center of environmental education”.

 

Use of methods (principles) of pedagogy of empowerment in teaching other subjects

In most schools, teachers and administrators try to use the methods (principles) of pedagogy of empowerment in teaching other subjects and in school life. For example, much attention is paid to create the atmosphere of confidence of success, responsibility for learning results, enthusiasm and a sense of satisfaction from group and individual work and its results, and to gain the skills to control the studying process. The principles of pedagogy of empowerment are widely used for the implementation of thematic, interdisciplinary and social projects. Moreover, the interactive learning technology, methods of critical thinking, actions and self-exploration of students are applied at the lessons of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geography, Ecology and Humanities curriculum.

 

One of the schools with a center for ongoing consulting introducing the education for sustainable development applies these ideas quite successfully. Its administration conducts methodical counseling, workshops, and master classes. Therefore, there is a significant percentage of teachers there, who actively implement the idea of education for sustainable development and use the principles of pedagogy of empowerment as an educational technology.

 

Using the LSD content for teaching other subjects

The schools focused on SD, implement widely the sustainability issues in teaching other subjects on interdisciplinary basis. Firstly, it refers to the subjects of the nature study of the curriculum’s compulsory part – I and Ukraine, Environment, Healthcare Basics, Crafts, Mathematics (elementary school), Geography, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy (secondary school). However, some schools have experience of integrating these issues into the subjects of social and humanitarian curriculum that considers the social component and analyzes social and cultural principles of ESD.

  The content of the course-books proposed for the LSD course project is used for tasks at 5 – 11th –grade lessons of Science, Geography, Biology, Economics, Chemistry, and Mathematics. The teachers create various educational material based on sustainable development issues – dictation, texts in different languages, presentations etc. The most interesting methods of implementing an intersubject approach include:

-       analytical exercises (language analysis);

-       language warm-ups (finding cognate words);

-       writing mini-essays: “My country and its future”, “A story of a droplet”, “Underground people”;

-       tests for “I and Ukraine”, “Nature Study” course;

-       tasks with the inclusion of informative content material and statistics data on SD.

 

The research activities of students on SD issues.

The schools focused on SD, invite students to participate in the research. This activity is carried out on the basis of intraschool presentations for classmates and parents, such as “Alternative Energy Sources. Energy Efficiency in my Family”, “Environmental Problems of Sluch River in Zhytomyr Oblast”, “New Life to Old Things” - a master class on making cages for rabbits using components from a broken refrigerator. Some schools conduct an annual project on sustainable development issues at school competitions on multimedia projects where students learn to express their opinions openly and freely, develop their reasoning skills. There is a shift of students’ reproductive activity to different types of search and research activity. Another example is the competition of youth projects on energy efficiency “Energy and Environment”.

Students sometimes take part in urban environmental conferences, their works are published in high school journals, students perform at city television.

The students of these schools systematically explore the topics of sustainable development, write research papers for the Ukrainian Competition of Research Works of Minor Academy of Sciences. The examples of such works are “Analysis of Soil Fertility in Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky Region”, “Role of Afforestation in Ecosystem Formation”, “Chemical Analysis of Water Trubizh River”.

There are several years of experience and implementation of the whole-school project “Living Water of Dnipro” that involved the study of the Ross river basin. The work was implemented in the following areas:

-       monitoring the water bodies of the city;

-       a gallery with drawings “My favorite place near Ross”;

-       a photographic album “Ross - the main water wealth of Bila Tserkva”;

-       writing essays, lines of poetry, topographical notes and legends.

The final stage of the project was to conduct the student and teacher conference in Kyiv and issue course-books.

 

Presentation of SD issues to school community.

To share the experience of SD teachers and develop a whole-school approach, there is a series of events in schools with presentations on LSD courses at education boards, teachers meetings, meetings with directors, methodical boards of primary school teachers, teachers of natural sciences, parents meetings and so on.

 

At the beginning of SD process, in many educational institutions various seminars and trainings on sustainable development issues were held. The teachers, who gave optional courses, presented their work during such lessons, sharing their experience. Open lessons for teachers and courses, in a form of tutorials or as a separate plan, are conducted for teachers of schools and CHOIPOPP training course participants as well as for the teaching associations of the city.

 

In one of schools studying SD, there is a creative laboratory “Management of teaching staff on the basis of education for sustainable development” and methodical project “Local history features forming part of sustainable development outlook for children of II-III accreditation level schools”.

 

Quite often, the school teams reach district or city level and conduct relevant seminars and presentations to teachers.

 

5.3       Ecological

Reducing School Ecological Footprint

Another important activity of schools focused on SD, is to reduce the ecological footprint of the school. This is primarily a power and water saving, and waste reduction by recycling it.

 

An interesting experience is accumulated in most schools, and it would help reduce waste by reusing old things.

 

Christmas costumes are remodeled from old clothes, garbage bins are made from boxes that remain after crafts lessons. Recycled materials are used for cork craft exhibitions, eco-bags are designed, old furniture transforms into new modern one, old chair frames are used for making benches in corridors, lighting fitting is turned into flower pots with modern design, faux fur transforms into paint rollers etc. Some schools organize workshops for students like “New Life for Old Things”, “Humanitarian Aid for an Orphanage”. There are fairs, exhibitions of students’ works (paintings, crafts from used fabric such as bags, aprons, napkins, handkerchiefs, etc., traditional rag dolls, beads, plastic (bottles, boxes), picture frames, notebooks, notepads, paper flowers, ornamental pots, toys for kids, objects to teach kids to count etc. Annual whole-school events as “Bring Joy to your Friend”, exhibition/competition of cork crafts “New Life for Old Things” are organized.

 

Different materials are used for these purposes:

-          leather – as a basis for creating student works and products; as part of needlepointing and the creation of panel paintings;

-          paper, newspapers - papier-mache, paper decorations, appliqued ornaments, sewing patterns, material for origami;

-          plastic - elements for the dimensional panel paintings;

-          fabric – rag dolls, soft toys, shopping bags, elements of appliqued ornaments, sewed things.

 

Taking care of plants

The proof of environmentally oriented schools among the analyzed ones is a large number of plants within the school premises, landscaping of schoolyard and annual planting, cleaning of springs, assistance in setting up and maintaining ecological paths etc.

 

Health saving technologies

An important aspect of their activity is also an introduction of health-saving technologies (physical training breaks, corrective classes for students at risk groups) as well as the related activities such as the meetings with medical specialists, school camp “Dyvosvit” (Wonderful World), annual medical examinations of school staff and students, clinical examination, insurance, thorough medical examination of 1, 5, 9th-grade students, a canteen serving hot meals, filters for drinking water, drinking water coolers in classrooms, regular ventilation, wet cleaning, lighting in accordance with hygiene requirements, certified school furniture in accordance with height etc.

 

5.4       Social and governance aspects

Care for sustainable relationships within school community

Finally, the schools focused on sustainable development, pay serious attention to communication and relationships within the school community. Thus, in most schools, whose activities were analyzed, regular classes (courses) with psychologist on conflict resolution are held. School administration settles conflicts among educational institution members, the conflicts are discussed and transformed into a source of mutual learning, teachers and students are willing and committed to peaceful dispute resolution, including mediation.

 

Some schools create special centers for conflict resolution, mediation centers, conduct trainings for students and teachers on conflict resolution, and give elective courses with relevant content. In addition, teachers teach techniques and methods of communication on their lessons, conduct various counseling meetings with responsible officer for communication.

 

Work within community

The sustainable development oriented schools develop sustainable development ideas within the community rather actively, especially regarding educational actions. Schools teams attract the residents to students’ actions toward garbage management, water use, energy efficiency, territory arrangement etc. Parents of students are invited to celebrate the events on the results of teaching courses on education for sustainable development.

 

The identified features are inherent in all CEI, whose work was analyzed, but they manifest themselves in different ways due to the peculiarities of the region, the community where a school is located, its traditions, previous experience, management style, etc. Obviously, this approach is fruitful for the development of ESD and should be spread and investigated thoroughly.

 


 

6.         GENERAL COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS

 

The research survey enabled a number of conclusions and generalizations.

 

  1. 1.                  Significant impact on attitudes and awareness

The delivery of the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ course during one year (grade 8 in basic school) and 2 years (grades 3 and 4 in primary school) leads to visible increases in positive attitudes to (readiness to act towards SD) and awareness of SD issues and the relevant actions, which students can take in their daily lives both at home and at school. The children start paying more attention to efficient use of resources and preservation of environment. A significant number of them are motivated to take a proactive stand and are developing sustainable habits.

 

These results may be considered quite convincing, taking into account that this subject has only one hour per week.

 

  1. 2.                  Role of a pedagogy tailored for ESD

This rather strong impact that ESD has had on children may be explained only by the sound pedagogical solution, i.e. the teaching and learning model, which is based on empowerment pedagogy and interactive collaboration between students in the learning process.

 

In this model the pedagogical impact is achieved by engaging students in a reflective discussion of their own attitudes, intentions and actions; encouraging them to take practical actions outside school hours and monitor changes in own behaviour (i.e. perform repeated audits), providing obligatory feedback to each student through his/her participation in the eco-team, etc. These and other aspects of the teaching and learning process help maintain a high motivation to learn and consistently act towards SD during the school year.

 

  1. 3.                  Importance of context and continuity

As evidenced by the research, the proposed pedagogical model for ESD contains the components that can realistically change the behaviour of people regarding the use of resources in the long term. However, to achieve such an outcome, it is essential to use a variety of formats for engaging students in ESD, as it happens at schools that pursue a whole-school approach.

 

This conclusion is supported by the comparison of the responses given by students right after they finished the ESD course and by upper secondary students (grades 10 and 11) who had studied it 2 or 3 years before. The commitment in grade 10 and 11 students to sustainable actions doesn’t wane over these 2 or 3 years, but rather grows stronger and even exceeds that of the ninth-graders.

 

On the other hand, the survey from the previous year and a similar comparison of responses by grade 8 students and the responses given by grade 10 students, who had studied the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ as a separate subject 2 or 3 years before, indicate that during this period students lose a good deal of motivation to act for sustainable development, their awareness decreases, some behaviour changes, noticeable when they were studying the course, disappear. Obviously, to ensure more sustainable outcomes, it is crucial to involve students to ESD learning over a longer period.

  1. 4.                   Control group shows significant differences

The analysis of data collected from students who did not participate in ESD demonstrates that they are not motivated to take action, don’t have sustainable habits or a willingness to develop them. Further comparisons prove that in all the oblasts students who study the ‘LSD’ course are far ahead of their peers who don’t study it. The majority of them have a high or intermediate level of commitment to change their behaviour and act towards sustainable development.

 

This means, that the other school subjects do not ensure similar changes in the outlook or behaviour of the child. Even at the upper secondary level, students do not realize the importance of resource saving, reductions in the amount of garbage, etc.

 

  1. 5.                  Pro-active and interactive approaches give results

In Dnipropetrovsk oblast, the results of students who did not study the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ were higher, compared to the other oblasts. It could be attributed to the fact that, since 2009, Dnipropetrovsk schools have been involved in a large-scale pilot project on proactive education for sustainable development, which includes a diverse set of extra-curricular activities.

 

At the same time, it was evident, that compared to the data from the previous year, the readiness of students to engage actively and change own behaviour increased even in those schools that did not teach the course.

 

  1. 6.                  WSA enhances results

The analysis of responses by students from the schools, which, in addition to a separate ‘LSD’ subject, have been implementing ESD within a whole-school approach, proves that their results are significantly higher than the results of schools offering only a separate one-year ‘LSD’ course. For example, nearly 32% of grade 9 students from these schools demonstrated an intermediate level of commitment to act towards sustainable development and 59% - a high level of commitment.

 

  1. 7.                  Parents are willing to be engaged

The survey also indicates that the overwhelming majority of parents in all three oblasts are happy for their children to have an opportunity to study the ‘LSD’ course and that they became involved in homework and project activities. The parents expressed positive views regarding students’ participation in eco-teams.

 

The analysis suggests that engaging students to different formats of ESD also has a significant impact on the awareness of their parents of SD issues and their willingness to act in this direction. At the same time, the parents of students, who did not study the course, expressed interest in resource saving and other aspects of sustainable behaviour. 60% of the parents noted that the ‘LSD’ course had spurred new ideas regarding their own lifestyles. Apparently, this means that the teachers were successful in their efforts to involve parents to their children’s ESD learning.

 

  1. 8.                   Teacher training is key

The survey of the teachers suggests that their decisions to start teaching ESD were motivated by an exciting training on the content and teaching methods (50%), looking through the student book (20%), and own interest in the issue. In their view, disseminating information about the idea of sustainable development, the content and methods of the ‘LSD’ curriculum, support from the school administration, and presentations by experts are all important factors to help engage new teachers to ESD. Also, the teachers believe that the contents of this subject and its teaching methodology are well-designed and appropriate and, therefore, no changes are necessary to either.

 

  1. 9.                  Transformation of teacher style, awareness and competence

The teaching of this subject enhances the teacher’s pedagogical competence, starting from the 3rd year of practice. The teachers with such length of experience transform their overall teaching style, making it more democratic and innovative, and become strong supporters of a sustainable lifestyle themselves. Most of them pointed to the changes in the teaching methods and reported that after using new strategies in the ‘LDS’ classroom they transferred them to other subjects.

 

Moreover, the nature of interaction with and between children changed significantly.

 

Reflecting on the changes in their personal lifestyle, 99% of the teachers who participated in the survey indicated that they had made them right at the beginning or gradually, and that these changes had become irreversible and didn’t depend on whether they would continue to teach the subject or not.

 

  1. 10.              Student appreciation for the subject

The students from the classrooms that study the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ course, expressed positive attitudes towards this subject, noting that the lessons were exciting and empowering (74%). The majority of the students (61%) highlighted a safe and friendly atmosphere in the classroom. Their opinion about homework in the ‘LSD’ were practically the same: 56% described them as easy and empowering.

 

The students also liked specific aspects of the pedagogical model, e.g. they welcomed working in small groups, or eco-teams, doing projects, and home tasks which encourage them to take practical actions.

 

  1. 11.              Key attributes of WSA identified

The survey allowed defining a number of distinctive features typical for a school that pursues a whole-school approach to ESD. We found that the most important of them is the systemic nature of delivering the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ curriculum. Classroom activities are enhanced by extra-curricular work. Besides, such schools use methods (or principles) of empowerment pedagogy in the delivery of other subjects. SD ideas, too, transcend the subject boundaries.

 

In these schools students are engaged in research projects on SD themes. The relevant topics and the elements of the content from the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ are discussed and presented to all members of the school and parents. Such schools take concerted action to reduce their ecological footprint.

 

Other key factors are maintaining sustainable relationships between school members and delivering SD campaigns in the local community.

 

  1. 12.              Engaging HE and teacher trainers: slow but effective

In most oblasts (9 out of 12) the higher education institutions are not involved in the ESD process. The links with teaching the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ were evident only in Ternopil oblast, where ESD themes are integrated into pre-service teacher training curriculum at two departments – natural science and geography – of the National Pedagogical University. The first steps in this direction were made at the Mykolaiv University that introduced relevant special courses.

 

Significant progress was however recorded in the development of ESD training for teachers at several In-Service Teacher Training Institutes. Each oblast organized such training differently, e.g. as informational lectures; a dedicated ESD program for school administrators (directors and their deputies); a separate training module (4-6 academic hours) on ESD themes integrated into in-service curricula for teachers of all subjects; an intensive one-week program for school representatives with a combination of face-to-face and distance learning; training workshops; seminars; and annual national conferences on ESD themes.

 

In accordance with the project plan, the project team arranged trainings and presentations for teachers, round table discussions for administrators and teachers, workshops, and experience sharing events in all the oblasts.

 

  1. 13.              There is a life after the ‘Decade’

The majority of project coordinators in the oblasts noted that the interest in this subject among teachers, students and parents, as well as the support from the in-service teacher training system may serve as a foundation to promote ESD further after the end of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development.

 


 

7.         RECOMMENDATIONS

 

  1. 1.                  Need to focus on sustainable actions / behaviour

The research survey helped determine the aspects of the proposed pedagogical model, where improvement is required, e.g. we found that the indices for student awareness regarding specific behaviours were lower than the indices for attitudes, so, in the ‘LSD’ classroom, it is necessary to strengthen the focus on student awareness by highlighting specific sustainable ways to tackle SD challenges (i.e. effective sustainable behaviours).

 

  1. 2.                  Team-building and cooperative skills are essential

There is a need to improve work in eco-teams, specifically to help students develop skills for communication and collaboration, supporting and providing assistance to each other.

 

  1. 3.                  Need to develop support for student project activities

It is important to enhance student project activities, particularly for grade 8. Evidently, teachers don’t have sufficient experience with this teaching method and often just ask students to look for additional information, while calling it project work. Consequently, it seems advisable to develop further recommendations for teachers/students in this respect.

 

  1. 4.                  Additional topics for teacher manuals identified

It is desirable to update ESD manuals for teachers, so that the revised editions would focus more on where and when the relevant knowledge and skills may be applied; why it is important to save resources, which seem plentiful; how to save and enjoy a comfortable lifestyle at the same time; the core of SD and the distinctive nature of the subject matter and the methods of the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’.

 

  1. 5.                  Explore different ways to engage parents

The research suggests that an ESD program specially organized for parents can be an effective strategy. This issue might be explored in more detail in a separate study.

 

It is clear that very many parents are willing to be engaged, and that involving them in students’ homework is one effective route. Even more efforts should be made and new strategies explored to engage parents in the ESD process when their children are learning the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’.

 

  1. 6.                  WSA can be further refined and promoted

There is a need to refine the whole-school approach to ESD, as a teaching and learning model, and promote it more among teachers on a wider scale.

 

  1. 7.                  Critical role of ministerial support

In the view of the coordinators, it is highly necessary to ensure the curricula for in-service teacher training that would be approved by the Ministry of Education.

 

After that, the ESD themes may be integrated into licensed in-service training programs for teachers and school administrators, e.g. as a distance learning component of a training program in addition to its core content pertaining to the main speciality. In such a case, for instance a biology/ geography teacher who teaches the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ might take his/her regular in-service training course in their main subject plus ESD.

 

  1. 8.                  Proposal to establish a national on-line community

The coordinators expressed the opinion, that in order to maintain the existing school network it may be advisable to create an all-Ukrainian online community, where members could share their experiences of putting the notion of sustainability in practice in their own life and in the life of their school or institution, offer concrete practical tips, share ideas and resources, etc.

 

 

Annexes

 

 

Questionnaire 1 for oblast coordinators

  1. Has there been any significant advancement made with regard introducing/ extending ESD as a part of educators’ initial training?

 

yes                                  no

 

  • Please specify
  • Please indicate if you wish to make a presentation on this topic/if there is an outstanding initiative in your oblasts on this topic

 

  1. Have there been any significant advances made with regard to introducing/ extending ESD as a part of educators’ in-service training?

 

yes                                  no

 

  • Please specify
  • Please indicate if you wish to make a presentation on this topic/if there is an outstanding initiative in your oblasts on this topic

 

 

  1. Are there any recently produced materials/resources that are accessible to a wider audience (e.g., online)?

 

yes                                  no

  • Please specify and, if applicable, indicate website address or reference

 

  1. Has the number of schools adopting a “whole-institution approach” to sustainable development (SD)/ESD increased?

 

yes                                  no

 

  • Please specify
  • Please indicate if you wish to make a presentation on this topic/if there is an outstanding initiative in your oblasts on this topic

5. Have any (additional) incentives and assistance measures (guidelines, award scheme, funding, training, technical support) been made available that support ESD school plans?

 

yes                                  no

 

  • Please specify
  • Please indicate if you wish to make a presentation on this topic/if there is an outstanding initiative in your oblasts on this topic

 

  1. Are there any recently produced materials/resources that are accessible about f “whole-school approach”  to a wider audience (e.g., online)?

yes                                  no

  • Please specify and, if applicable, indicate website address or reference
  1. Is there already a political commitment/indication that ESD implementation will continue to be supported after the United Nations Decade of ESD?

 

yes                                  no

  • Please specify

 

8. Is there an indication of what will (continue to) be the priorities of your country for future ESD implementation?

yes                                  no

  • Please specify

 

 

Questionnaire 2

Questionnaire for students 8-10th grade

Dear friend! We ask you to participate in a national survey of the program "Education for sustainable development in action." Your participation in the survey is very important to us. Questionnaire is anonymous: does not require your name or surname. It is important that every question you answered openly and were attentive. This is not a reference work.

Our slogan is that no-one can do everything, but everyone can do something. It’s important to us to find out what you are REALLY doing, because it helps us to improve the program.
Your gender: F M (underline)

 
How old are you:

 ______
Have studied (isthat) you exchange lessons for sustainable development ï ï yes no

I. It must be emphasized ONLY ONE answer.


1. Whether you are trying to economical use of water in daily life?

Yes, because it allows my family to save money.

Sometimes if it requires extra effort.

not fit.


2. Whenever I see on the street near his home tube from which water flows, I:

I look for a way to stop the leaks.

notified about the problem someone from adults.

I will not interfere, it's a problem that should resolve adults.

 

3. When my family buy a new washing machine, I have:

Find online information about this model that makes it possible to save water and inform the parents.

Advise parents that they are looking for high quality and inexpensive model.

I believes that parents themselves can solve this problem.

 

4.Whether you are trying to save electricity in everyday life?

Yes, because electric power depletes natural resources and environmental harm our country and the planet
Yes, because it allows my family to save money.

not fit.


5. Whenever I see someone turned on unnecessarily in the family appliance, I:

sure it Off.

I will make comments to someone who is not disabled.

ï not pay attention to it.


6. If your family is normal and electric kettles, you:

Trying figure out which one is more economical.

You ask the parents what is best to use.

Opt for a way to heat water, which I like.


7. Whether you are trying to reduce the amount of waste that produces you and your family?
Yes, because the garbage pollutes not only my city but also harms the planet and future generations.
 Sometimes when I mention this.

No, I never pay attention to it.


8. Making purchases of food do you usually:

leave home with a bag reuse.

sometimes take to the store reusable bag.

 bought every package directly to the store.



9. Did you think that the collection and delivery of secondary raw materials (paper, plastic, metal) - are:

duty of every modern man.

problem you have to solve municipal services.

not what you would like to think.


10. Did you try to live a healthy lifestyle, because:

Yes, it's important to me, my family and my country.

Yes, sometimes I make steps in that direction.

 No, because I do not have time for this.


11. Did you usually spend time on cooking and warming food or trying to hastily snack?

Yes, I cook and warm up food.

always better for me to eat, rather than spending time and effort in cooking.

Do not think about it, as long as there was something to eat.


12. Whether physical activity is an important part of your life?

Yes, it's my lifestyle.

Sometimes, when I have time and mood.

No, because I have other important lesson for me.


13. Whether you are worried about the environment in their daily household activities?

So, as I understand it, this is important.

Sometimes, when you can do something interesting.

No need to think about it for adults and authority.


14. In addressing environmental problems can I take part:

today.

when mature.

not see it as necessary.

 

 

15.How I feel about the work in our team:

  • One or two people dominate, the rest just listen
  • I don’t take part much
  • I enjoy the team meetings
  • I feel able to say my opinion in the team
  • If I have a question or problem, the other team members are helpful
  • The team work is better now that we’ve practiced
  • I hope we work in teams next year too
  • I wish we DON’T work in teams again

 

16.Our team meetings are/were

  • Too long
  • Just right
  • Too short

 

17.How I feel about the class work for Lessons for SD:

The lessons are

  • Fun
  • Inspiring
  • Boring
  • Difficult
  • Other:

 

The atmosphere between pupils is

  • Cooperative
  • Competitive
  • Some people dominate
  • Comments:

 

Changes in atmosphere

In our SD lessons I feel the atmosphere this year

  • Has improved
  • Is about the same as before
  • Is worse than before

 

18.How I feel about homework and projects

The homework was

  • Difficult
  • Easy
  • Inspiring
  • Boring

 

In the family

  • I got help with my homework
  • I got NO help with my homework
  • I didn’t need help with my homework, it was easy
  • Other family members asked questions about the lessons
  • No-one seemed interested

 

If you/your team/your class carried out a project:

  • The people we contacted seemed interested
  • It was difficult to get people interested
  • We saw some practical results
  • We worked mostly with information
  • I hope we do more projects in future
  • I wish that we DON’T do more projects

 


II. Suggest answers, deems appropriate, but no more than five.

19. Economical use of water to everyday life possible:

1) _____________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________
3) _____________________________________________________________
4) _____________________________________________________________
5) _____________________________________________________________

20. To save electricity in daily life possible:

1) _____________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________
3) _____________________________________________________________
4) _____________________________________________________________
5) _____________________________________________________________


21. To reduce the amount of waste possible

1) _____________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________
3) _____________________________________________________________
4) _____________________________________________________________
5) _____________________________________________________________

 

 

Questionnaire 3 for administrators

Instruction

‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ teaching

  1. Does the school teach ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ courses as optional subjects?

Yes

No

Comment: (How many classrooms? What percentage of students receives this instruction?)

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Does the school offer the relevant extra-curricular activities as a series of homeroom hours in Grades 5 – 7?

Yes

No

Comment: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Do teachers that teach ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ also use methods (principles of empowerment pedagogy) in other subjects as well?

Yes

No

Comment: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Are SD topics integrated into other school subjects?

Yes

No

Comment: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Is the content of ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ books used in other subjects?

Yes

No

Comment: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Are SD topics included in students’ research assignments?

Yes

No

Comment:

Involvement of school staff

     7. Was the course presented at the meetings of the school’s methodology unit, the teachers’ council? Was a report delivered at the teachers’ council meeting, etc.?

Yes

No

Comment:

     8.Were open lessons held to demonstrate the ‘Lessons for Sustainable Development’ course to the colleagues?

Yes

No

Comment:

Ecological footprint of the school

Energy

    9.Have there been cutbacks in electricity use during the previous year? If yes, how was this achieved?

  • By reducing the number of lighting fixtures/lamps.
  • By reducing lamp wattage.
  • By deciding to stop using any electrical appliances except lighting.
  • By replacing ordinary lamps with energy-efficient ones.
  • By buying energy-saving devices.

 

Water

  1. Have there been cutbacks in water consumption during the previous year? If yes, how was this achieved?
  • By replacing water taps.
  • By repairing plumbing fixtures and eliminating water leaks.
  • By monitoring water use.
  • By reducing the number of water use points.
  • …………… (your version)

 

Garbage

  1. Are there measures in the school to control the amount of garbage that it throws away?

_________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Are there measures in the school to sort garbage?

_________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Is there a practice of recycling some part of the garbage? If yes, how?
  • Paper
  • Plastic
  • Metal
  • Organic waste

 

  1. Is there a practice of recycling unnecessary and old stuff? If yes, how? Please, give examples.

_____________________________________________________________________

 

Plants

  1. How many plants are cared for inside the school? _______________
  2. How many plants were planted and are cared for outside, on the school grounds? ________

 

Health

  1. 17.   Are there any pedagogical approaches used in the teaching and learning process that promote good health of all stakeholders? Please, give examples.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Does the school carry out activities to promote good health of its students and staff (e.g.: related to healthcare services, physical training, healthy eating habits, clean air and water, lighting, etc.)? Please, give examples.

______________________________________________________________________

 

Communication and relationships

  1. Is there a process in the school to help reduce conflicts between the stakeholders of the teaching and learning process and ensure their effective resolution?
  • Mediation centre working at the school.
  • Regular training sessions (courses) on conflict resolution facilitated by a psychologist.
  • The administrative team help settle conflicts between stakeholders.
  • When conflicts arise, they are discussed and treated as an opportunity to learn to understand each other.
  • Teachers and students demonstrate willingness and tendency to resolve disputes in an amicable manner, e.g. through mediation. 
  • Your version. ______________________________________________________
  1. 20.   Does the school teach strategies how to improve communication between the stakeholders of the teaching and learning process?
  • Teachers teach communication skills and strategies during their lessons.
  • Specific courses were introduced in the school curriculum to teach communication skills.
  • A designated staff member gives advice on communication issues to all those who wish to consult him/her.
  • Other ____________________________________________________________

 

Work in the community

Were any campaigns conducted to introduce the ideas of sustainable development in the community? What exactly?

  • Raising awareness about sustainable development.
  • Involving community members to actions concerning garbage, water consumption, energy saving, neigbourhood improvement, etc.

Comment:

  • Inviting students’ parents to school events to celebrate the outcomes of teaching the ESD courses.
  • Other

 

Questionnaire 4
Questionnaire for students in grades 4


Girl, Boy (underline)
How old are you: ______
You studied "Lessons for Sustainable Development»

yes       no

I. It must be emphasized ONLY ONE answer.
1. Whether you're trying to save water in daily life?
Yes, because it allows my family to save money.
Sometimes when I remember about it.
 not fit.

2. Whether you're trying to save electricity in everyday life?
 Yes, because electric power depletes natural resources and environmental damage
 Sometimes when I remember about it.
 not fit.

3. Whether you are trying to reduce the amount of waste in the family?
 So as garbage pollute my city and harms the planet and future generations.
 Sometimes when I mention this.
 No, I never pay attention to it.

4.How I feel about the work in our team:

  • I don’t take part much
  • I enjoy the team meetings
  • I feel able to say my opinion in the team
  • I hope we work in teams next year too
  • I wish we DON’T work in teams again

 

4.How I feel about homework and projects

The homework was

  • Difficult
  • Easy
  • Inspiring
  • Boring

 

In the family

  • I got help with my homework
  • I got NO help with my homework
  • I didn’t need help with my homework, it was easy
  • Other family members asked questions about the lessons
  • No-one seemed interested

 

If you/your team/your class carried out a project:

  • The people we contacted seemed interested
  • It was difficult to get people interested
  • We saw some practical results
  • I hope we do more projects in future
  • I wish that we DON’T do more projects

 

 

II. CHOOSE answer "yes" or "no", and where stand the figures indicate ONE (given that 1 IS - never, 2 - sometimes, 3-often 4 - almost always, 5 - always).

1.Sposterihayemo of water
- I avoid to leave the tap open,
   when umyvayusya and clean teeth January 2 3 4 5
- When wash dishes, I use a bowl, then quickly rinse it
                                                                                                                  12 3 4 5
- I open the tap only a thin trickle Jan. 2 3 4 5
2.A I clean (a)?
- When I take a shower, I averaged
And do it in 5 minutes no / yes
B do it in 15 minutes no / yes
As often take baths than a wash in the shower no / yes
3.Vtorynne paper use
- I collect used paper and so I can use it
    one more time on the other side
                                                                                                                  1 2 3 4 5
- I am a contributing notebooks the end of                                 1 2 3 4 5
4.Dovhotryvale use
- Unwanted toys and books to me, I prefer the other children       1 2 3 45
- My family uses repeatedly packages, bottles
   storage and transfer of something no / yes
- I give leftover food to birds or animals no / yes
5.Koly I'm not in the room
- I turn off the lights when no one in the room                       1 2 3 4 5
- I turn off appliances that are not in use                                  1 2 3 4 5
6. Keeping warm
- I will see to it to close the doors and windows during the cold season no / yes

 

Questionnaire 5

“GOOD PRACTICE” IN EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

IN UKRAINE

 

"Good practices in ESD" demonstrate good practice, generate ideas and contribute to policy development. These good practices:

 

1. focus on the educational and learning dimensions of sustainable development.

 

2. are innovative. They develop new and creative solutions to common problems, such as:

􀂙 ways to discover what the key local issues of education of sustainable development are

􀂙 ways to adapt processes to relevant teaching and learning strategies

􀂙 ways of fostering links between learning situations and the community

􀂙 ways of integrating local knowledge and culture

􀂙 curriculum development processes enabling content to be decided as locally relevant

􀂙 starting points on how Education for Sustainable Development can best be put into effect.

 

3. make a difference. They demonstrate a positive and tangible impact on the living conditions, quality of life of the individuals, groups or communities concerned. They seek to bridge gaps between different societal actors/sectors and are inclusive, in order to allow new partners to join the implementing agents/bodies.

 

4. have a sustainable effect. They contribute to sustained improvement of living conditions. They must integrate economic, social, cultural and environmental components of sustainable development and reflect their interaction/interdependency in their design and implementation.

 

5. have the potential for replication. They provide effective methodologies for transdisciplinary and multi-sectoral co-operation. They serve as models for generating policies and initiatives elsewhere.

 

6. offer some elements of evaluation. They have been and can be evaluated in terms of the criteria of innovation, success and sustainability by both experts and the people concerned.

 

1. NAME OF THE INITIATIVE CONSIDERED AS A GOOD PRACTICE1:

 

2. RESPONSIBLE COUNTRY/ORGANIZATION:

Name

Mailing address:

Telephone: Fax:

E-mail: Internet:

3. CONTACT PERSON (name and title):

 

4. FOCUS OF THE INITIATIVE (check one or more box(es)):

Education/Learning

Educators

Health Promotion

Environment

Water

Energy

Waste

Biodiversity

Sustainable Consumption

Peace, Human Rights & Security

Policy, Regulation, Governance

Intercultural Understanding

Cultural Diversity

Indigenous knowledge

Tools and materials (e.g. Media & ICTs)

Research / Development

Economy

Citizenship

other (please specify)

 

5. INITIATIVE DESCRIPTION (provide brief description)

􀂃 Type (governmental, non-governmental, municipal, other):

􀂃 Setting / Target group(s) / Number of persons involved:

􀂃 Starting year and Duration:

􀂃 Partner organisations involved (if any):

􀂃 Stakeholders involved (e.g. local community). Describe their involvement in this initiative and the kind of relationship you

have with them.

6. MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE INITIATIVE (provide brief description)

7. METHODOLOGY (provide brief description)

Methods/approach for this initiative (list key background materials that were used; If necessary, use a separate sheet))

8. RESULTS AND EVALUATION OF THE INITIATIVE (provide brief description and assessment)

􀂃 Results

􀂃 Strengths

􀂃 Weaknesses and risks

􀂃 Problems encountered:(fill in if applicable)

􀂃 Conditions for successful replication (fill in if applicable)

􀂃 Unresolved issues (fill in if applicable)

􀂃 Why do you consider this a good practice?

 

Questionnaire 7

Questionnaire for Parents

Dear parents!

As you know, your son/daughter has been taking part in lessons for sustainable development. In all questions of lifestyle it is important for schools to be aware of and take into account the views of parents. We will therefore very much appreciate if you will take part in this survey.

 

 

The survey is in three parts:

  • Your opinions about the lessons and related homework
  • Your household’s current habits in relation to resource use and other aspects of SD
  • Your opinion about whether the lessons have had an impact – positive or negative! – on the habits of your child.

 

Opinions

Lessons (one answer)

I’m really glad my child had a chance to attend these lessons

The lessons seemed OK

I would have preferred lesson time to be spent on other topics

No opinion

 

Homework (support to child, one answer)

It was a lot of work for us parents!

It felt good to be included

I didn’t really notice it

 

Own engagement/opinion

It gave me new ideas

Nothing really new, but good for my child to hear it from school

I don’t think it’s the business of the school to have views about what happens at home

I didn’t really notice it

 

Comments

 

Our habits today


1. Whether you are trying to economical use of water in daily life?
ï Yes, because it allows our family to save money.
ï Sometimes if it requires extra effort.
ï It is not important to me.

2. When on the street near our house pipes flowing water, you:
ï will look for a way to stop the leaks.
ï find someone who is responsible for dealing with such matters in our house.
ï will not interfere, it's a problem that should solve the utility.

3. When there is a need to buy a new washing machine, you:
ï find online information about this model that makes it possible to save water and electricity.
ï will pay attention to the maximum load washing machine.
ï pay attention to other important parameters for me (color, power, size, etc.).

4. When you see someone turned on without the need of the family appliance, you:
ï sure to disable it.
ï will make comments to someone who is not disabled.
ï will pay no attention to it.

5. If your family is normal and electric kettles, you:
ï trying to figure out which one is more economical.
ï heated one in which water is poured
ï shall elect a convenient way to heat water for me.

6. Whether you are trying to reduce the amount of garbage that throws your family?
ï Yes, because the garbage pollutes not only my city but also harms the environment.
ï Sometimes when I mention this.
ï No, it's not very important to me.

7. Making purchases of food do you usually:
ï leave home with a bag reuse.
ï sometimes take to the store reusable bag.
ï bought every package directly to the store.

8. Did you think that the collection and delivery of secondary raw materials (paper, plastic, metal) - are:
ï duty of every modern man.
ï problem you have to solve municipal services.
ï not what you would like to think.

9. Whether you aspire to a healthy lifestyle?
ï Thus, it is important for my family and country.
ï Yes, sometimes I make steps in this direction under the influence of their own children.
ï No, it is not important to me.

10. Whether physical activity is an important part of your life?
ï Yes, it's my lifestyle.
ï Sometimes, when I have time and mood.
ï No, because I have other important lesson for me.

11. Whether you are worried about the environment in their daily household activities?
ï Yes, because I think it's important.
ï Sometimes when it does not require much effort.
ï No need to think about is those whom we elect to government.


II. Ask those answers that feel appropriate, but no more than five.

12. Economical use of water to everyday life possible:
6) _____________________________________________________________
7) _____________________________________________________________
8) _____________________________________________________________
9) _____________________________________________________________
10) _____________________________________________________________

13. To save electricity in daily life possible:
6) _____________________________________________________________
7) _____________________________________________________________
8) _____________________________________________________________
9) _____________________________________________________________
10) _____________________________________________________________

14.: To reduce the amount of waste possible
6) _____________________________________________________________
7) _____________________________________________________________
8) _____________________________________________________________
9) _____________________________________________________________
10) _____________________________________________________________

 

Changes in habits

 

I’ve noticed that my son/daughter has become more assiduous at

(free text)

If anything, I think his/her behaviour has become less sustainable in the following ways

(free text)

I haven’t notice any significant change

 

About your child’s SD homework

  • We didn’t hear much about the homework
  • We needed to spend quite a bit of time helping
  • The assignments seemed difficult for this age group
  • The assignments were interesting
  • We got new ideas about changes we can make in the home
  • We got tired of hearing we are doing things wrong!

 

About your child’s daily habits: do you notice any difference?

  • More careful with using water and/or electricity
  • Less careful/no change with water or electricity
  • More careful with sorting garbage
  • Less careful/no change with garbage
  • Easier to discuss, solve problems with
  • No change or harder to discuss, solve problems
  • More positive about going to school
  • Less positive/no change

 

If your child was engaged in a project or other work outside the class

  • We didn’t hear much about it
  • It was probably good experience
  • It seemed like a waste of time
  • We were proud of our child for taking part
  • We became engaged in the project ourselves
  • I hope they do more projects like this in future
  • I wish they would NOT do more projects like this

 


Thank you for your cooperation!

 



 



[1] The complete data of this research study is available at www.esd.org.ua.


 [MM1]I have abbreviated the headings in sections 3 & 4 but not here in the TOC. Probably better to use an automatic TOC.

 [MM2]Needs to be written. Max 1 page.

 [MM3]What does this mean?

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